Notes for P&L

All amounts in SEKm unless otherwise stated.

Note 3 Financial risks and risk management

Goals and policy for risk management

Addtech strives for structured and efficient management of the financial risks that arise in operations, which is manifest in the financial policy adopted by the Board of Directors. The financial operations are not conducted as a separate line of the business; they are merely intended to constitute support for the business and reduce risks in the financial operations. The policy stipulates goals and risks in the financial operations, and how they are to be managed. The financial policy expresses the goal of minimising and controlling financial risks. The policy defines and identifies the financial risks that arise at Addtech and how responsibility for managing these risks is distributed in the organisation. The financial risks defined in the financial policy are transaction exposure, translation exposure, refinancing risk, interest rate risk, margin risk, liquidity risk and issuer/borrower risk. Operational risks, that is, financial risks related to operating activities, are managed by each subsidiary's management according to principles in the financial policy and subordinate process descriptions approved by the Group's Board of Directors and management. Risks such as translation exposure, refinancing risk and interest rate risk are managed by the Parent Company, Addtech AB. Financial derivatives with external counterparties may only be entered by Addtech AB. The subsidiaries hedge their risk with Addtech AB which, in turn, hedges the net risk on the external market.

Currency risks

The Addtech Group conducts extensive trade abroad and a material currency exposure therefore arises in the Group, which must be managed in such a way as to minimise the impact on earnings ensuing from exchange rate fluctuations. 

The Group applies decentralised responsibility for currency risk management. This involves risk identification and risk hedging occurring at subsidiary level. It is important to capitalise on the size of the Group and natural circumstances to match flows, and the subsidiaries shall therefore hedge their risk with the Parent Company which, in turn, hedges the net risk of the Group on the external market. Currency risk is defined as the risk of a negative effect on profit resulting from changes in foreign exchange rates. For Addtech, currency risk arises 1) as a result of future payment flows in foreign currency, known as transaction exposure, and 2) because parts of the Group's equity comprise net assets in foreign subsidiaries, known as translation exposure.

Transaction exposure

Transaction exposure comprises all future contracted and forecast ingoing and outgoing payments in foreign currency. The Group's currency flows usually pertain to flows in foreign currency from purchases, sales and dividends. Transaction exposure also comprises financial transactions and balances. During the year, the Group's payment flows in foreign currencies were distributed as follows:

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Currency flows, gross 2011/2012 Currency flows, net
Inflows Outflows 2011/2012 2010/2011
EUR 1,045 1,560 -515 -390
USD 210 360 -150 -130
JPY 80 130 -50 -40
GBP 25 65 -40 -50
CHF 10 85 -75 -70

The effects of exchange rate fluctuations are reduced by buying and selling in the same currency, through currency clauses in customer contracts and, to a certain degree, by forward purchases or sales of foreign currency. Currency clauses are a common method in the industry for handling uncertainty associated with future cash flows. A currency clause means that compensation will be paid for any changes in the exchange rate that exceed a certain predefined level during the contract period. If these thresholds are not reached, for example when the exchange rate changes by less than two percentage points, no compensation is paid. The currency clauses adjust the exchange rate change between the time the order is placed and the invoice date. Currency clauses are symmetrically designed, which means that compensation is charged or credited when the exchange rate rises or declines beyond the predefined thresholds.

Of Group net sales, currency clauses cover about 16 percent and sales in the purchasing currency make up about 35 percent. In certain transactions, there is a direct link between the customer's order and the associated purchase order, which is a good basis for effective currency risk management. However, in many cases the dates of the orders do not coincide, which may reduce the effectiveness of these measures. The subsidiaries have reduced their currency exposure by using forward foreign exchange contracts. At the end of the financial year, there were outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts in a net amount of SEK 82 million, of which EUR equalled SEK 67 million, JPY SEK 9 million and USD SEK 4 million. Out of the total contracts, SEK 75 million matures within six months and SEK 7 million within 12 months. Hedge accounting does not apply to forward foreign exchange contracts and they are classified as a financial asset measured at fair value - held for trading. Hedge accounting applies to embedded derivatives consisting of currency clauses, and they are classified as derivatives used in hedge accounting. The cash flow effect from embedded derivatives normally occurs within six months.

The Group has a net exposure in several currencies. If each separate currency pair changes by 5 percent, the aggregate effect on profit would total about SEK 18 million (16), all else being equal. Inflows and outflows in the same currency mean that the Group's exposure is relatively limited. Currency flows in the Parent Company are mainly in Swedish kronor (SEK). To the extent that internal and external loans and investments in the Parent Company are in foreign currency, 100 percent of the capital amount is hedged.

Translation exposure

The translation exposure of the Addtech Group is currently not hedged. The Group's net assets are divided among foreign currencies as follows:

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31 Mar 12 31 Mar 11
Net investments SEKm Sensitivity analysis, impact of +/–5% in exchange rate on Group equity SEKm
EUR 340.4 17.0 347.5
NOK 284.1 14.2 110.6
DKK 200.8 10.0 198.7
PLZ 24.1 1.2 21.6
HKD 8.7 0.4 5.8
GBP 6.8 0.3 4.8
CNY 1.8 0.1 6.7
JPY 1.1 0.1 1.9

When translating the income statement of units with a functional currency other than SEK, a translation effect arises when exchange rates vary. With the present distribution of Group companies' different functional currencies, a change of 1 percentage point in the exchange rates would have an effect of SEK +/- 25 million (20) on net sales and SEK +/-2 million (1) on operating profit.

The exchange rates used in the financial statements are shown in the following table:

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Average rate Closing day rate
Exchange rate 2011/2012 2010/2011 31 Mar 12 31 Mar 11
CHF 1 7.45 6.93 7.35 6.88
CNY 100 102.68 104.76 105.19 96.00
DKK 100 121.23 124.54 118.89 119.85
EUR 1 9.03 9.28 8.85 8.94
GBP 1 10.46 10.92 10.61 10.18
HKD 1 0.84 0.90 0.85 0.81
JPY 1000 83.20 82.03 80.70 76.20
LTL 1 2.61 2.69 2.56 2.59
NOK 100 116.72 116.86 116.33 113.40
PLZ 1 2.16 2.33 2.13 2.23
TWD 1 0.23 0.23
USD 1 6.56 7.03 6.62 6.30

Financing and liquidity

The overall objective of Addtech's financing and debt management is to secure financing for the operations in both the long and short term, and to minimise borrowing costs. The capital requirement shall be secured through an active and professional borrowing procedure comprising overdraft and credit facilities. Raising external financing is centralised at Addtech AB. Satisfactory payment capacity shall be achieved through contractual credit facilities. Surplus liquidity is primarily used to pay down outstanding loans. Temporary surpluses in liquid funds are invested at optimum return. Credit, interest rate and liquidity risks shall be minimised when investing liquid funds. The fixed interest term and the period during which capital is tied up may not exceed six months. Only counterparties with high credit ratings are permitted. At 31 March 2012 there were no current investments.  The Parent Company is responsible for the Group's long-term financing as well as its supply of liquidity. The Parent Company provides an internal bank which lends to and borrows from the subsidiaries. The Group's and Parent Company's non-current and current interest-bearing liabilities are shown in Notes 24 and 25.

To manage surpluses and deficits in different currencies, Addtech uses currency swaps from time to time. This allows the Group to reduce its financing costs and the Company's liquid funds to be used in an efficient manner.

With the current net financial debt, the impact on the Group's net financial items is SEK +/-5 million if interest rates change by one percentage point.

Refinancing risk

The refinancing risk is the risk of Addtech not having access to sufficient financing on each occasion. The refinancing risk increases if Addtech's credit rating deteriorates or if Addtech becomes too dependent on one source of financing. If all or a large part of the debt portfolio matures on a single or a few occasions, this could involve the turnover or refinancing of a large proportion of the loan volume having to occur on disadvantageous interest and borrowing terms.

In order to limit the refinancing risk, the procurement of long-term credit facilities commences nine months at the latest before the credit facility matures.  At 31 March 2012, the Group's bank overdraft facilities amounted to SEK 655 million (435) and contractual credit facilities to SEK 300 million (300). Bank overdraft facilities increased by SEK 220 million in the financial year. At 31 March 2012, the Group had utilised SEK 287 million of the bank overdraft facilities. Unutilised bank overdraft facilities and credit facilities amounted to SEK 668 million. Contractually binding credit facilities are contingent upon loan covenants. For covenants, Addtech uses two ratios: net debt/EBITDA and equity/assets. Addtech meets its present covenants by a margin.

Interest rate risk

The interest rate risk is defined as the risk of changes in interest rates having a negative effect on net financial items due to increased borrowing costs. The interest rate risk is regulated by ensuring that the average fixed interest term of the debt portfolio varies between zero and three years. The debt portfolio consists of bank overdraft facilities, outstanding external loans and interest rate derivatives. At 31 March 2012, the fixed interest term was variable, i.e. 0-3 months. Addtech's main exposure to interest rate risk is in its debt portfolio. Aside from the pension liability, interest-bearing external debt totals SEK 389 million (222).

Issuer/borrower risk and credit risk

Issuer/borrower risk and credit risk are defined as the risk of Addtech's counterparties failing to fulfil their contractual obligations. Addtech is exposed to credit risk in its financial transactions, that is, in investing its surplus liquidity and executing forward foreign exchange transactions, and in its commercial operations in connection with accounts receivable and advance payments to suppliers.

Addtech's financial function at the Parent Company is responsible for assessing and managing issuer/borrower risk. The financial policy prescribes that surplus liquidity only be invested with counterparties that have a very high credit rating. As in prior years, in 2011/2012 surplus funds were not invested with any counterparties other than Swedish banks, aside from the Group's normal bank contacts.

To utilise its subsidiaries' detailed knowledge of Addtech's customers and suppliers, Addtech has each company assess the credit risk in its commercial transactions. New customers are assessed before credit is granted, and credit limits set are strictly enforced. Short credit periods are the goal, and avoiding excessive concentration of business with individual customers and with specific sectors helps minimise risks. No individual customer accounts for more than 3 percent (3) of total credit exposure during a one-year period. The equivalent figure for the ten largest customers is about 12 percent (12). Exposure per customer segment and geographic market is presented in Note 5. Bad debt losses totalled SEK 1.9 million (2.9) during the year, equal to 0.0 percent (0.1) of net sales.

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Accounts receivable 31 Mar 12 31 Mar 11
Carrying amount 759.5 657.3
Impairment losses 4.4 4.5
Cost 763.9 661.8
Change in impaired accounts receivable 2011/2012 2010/2011
Amount at start of year -4.5 -4.1
Corporate acquisitions -0.3 -0.6
Year’s impairment losses/reversals 0.1 -0.9
Settled impairment losses 0.3 0.8
Translation effects 0.0 0.3
Total -4.4 -4.5
Time analysis of accounts receivable that are overdue but not impaired 31 Mar 12 31 Mar 11
< = 30 days 67.0 62.9
31–60 days 8.3 4.6
> 60 days 3.8 4.9
Total 79.1 72.4

Measurement of financial assets and liabilities at fair value

The fair value of a listed security is determined based on the publicly quoted price for the asset in an active market (level 1). At the end of the reporting period, the Group had no items in this category. The fair value of foreign exchange contracts and embedded derivatives is determined based on observed market data (level 2). Current and non-current loans are carried at amortised cost. The difference between carrying amount and fair value is marginal for these items. As regards contingent considerations, a cash flow-based valuation is performed that is not based on observable market data (level 3). Fair value and carrying amount are recognised in the balance sheet according to the following tables.

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31 Mar 12
SEKm Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss Derivatives used in hedge accounting Accounts receivable and loan receivables Available-forsale financial assets Other liabilities Total carrying amount Fair value
Financial assets 11  3) 11 11
Non-current receivables 3 3 3
Accounts receivable 760 760 760
Other receivables 1) 1  4) 0 1 1
Cash and cash equivalents 50 50 50
Total 1 0 813 11 825 825
Non-current interest-bearing liabilities 26  5) 1 27 27
Current interest-bearing liabilities 60  5) 302 362 362
Accounts payable 489 489 489
Other liabilities 2) 1  4) 1 2 2
Total 87 1 792 880 880

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31 Mar 11
SEKm Financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss Derivatives used in hedge accounting Accounts receivable and loan receivables Available-forsale financial assets Other liabilities Total carrying amount Fair value
Financial assets 10  3) 10 10
Non-current receivables 2 2 2
Accounts receivable 657 657 657
Other receivables 1) 1  4) 1 2 2
Cash and cash equivalents 50 50 50
Total 1 1 709 10 721 721
Non-current interest-bearing liabilities 35  5) 14 49 49
Current interest-bearing liabilities 21  5) 152 173 173
Accounts payable 405 405 405
Other liabilities 2) 1  4) 3 4 4
Total 57 3 571 631 631
 1) Part of other receivables in the consolidated balance sheet.
 2) Part of other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.
 3) Valued at amortised cost. The difference between amortised cost and fair value is marginal for the Group.
 4) Held for trading. Consist of derivatives in the Parent Company.
 5) Valued according to the fair value option. Consist of contingent considerations.

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Impact of financial instruments on net earnings 2011/2012 2010/2011
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss -3 -1
Derivatives used in hedge accounting 1 0
Accounts receivable and loan receivables -2 -3
Available-for-sale financial assets 0 0
Other liabilities -13 -5
Total -17 -9